Lynchburg Insulators

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Lynchburg CD 162

NO. 36 Deep Groove Double Petticoat
(also NO. 36-19)

CD 162, Telegraph and Light Power

Original Molds: Brookfield, Gayner

Number of molds known: 43 (counts reworked molds)

Mold Types: 4

Major Lettering Arrangements: 7

Lettering Variations: 18

Crown Lettering: "L" logo (2 molds)

Retooled molds: Yes

Base Types: CDP, RDP, NDP, SB

Number made: 1,097,532*

Original Price 1924: $45.00 per 1,000; 4.5 cents each

** The listed total comes from Lynchburg production records, and may not include pieces made in clear and clear-tinted colors (see Birmingham).

Colors: Lt. Aqua, Aqua, Dk. Aqua, Blue Aqua, Green Aqua, Ice Aqua, Ice Blue, Blue, Lt. Green, Sage Green, Lt. Smoky Sage Green, Smoky Sage Green, Moss Green, Green, Apple Green, Emerald Green, Lt. Yellow Green, Yellow Green, Olive Green, Dk. Olive Green, Clear w/Green tint, Lt. Sage w/Amber tinted skirt, Aqua w/Amber Swirls, Aqua w/Milk Swirls, Bi-color Aqua/Green, Bi-color Blue Aqua/Green


Over a million No. 36 CD 162 were made by Lynchburg (1,097,532), making it second only to the NO. 10 telephone insulator (CD 106) in total production. Lynchburg CD 162 occurs both with and without drip points. However, only about 3% of the total production of CD 162 were smooth base (35,000).

The Lynchburg CD 162 was made from both Gayner and Brookfield molds, both of which were extensively reworked during the course of production. As a result the story of the CD 162 is complicated.

The CD 162 was one of the first, if not the first, insulator styles put into production at Lynchburg. William Gayner had brought molds for the CD 162 with him from Gayner and these, crudely re-lettered for Lynchburg, were likely part of the first production runs. However at some point, Lynchburg also acquired Brookfield CD 162 molds. There is no record of how Lynchburg obtained these molds. Brookfield had stopped production in late 1920 or early 1921, and we know that Lynchburg obtained two Brookfield Kribs automatic insulator presses. So, it is likely that Lynchburg acquired the Brookfield CD 162 molds, along with molds for the CD 102 and CD 252 (and possibly CD 251), from the defunct company, perhaps at the same time as the Brookfield presses.

After the demise of Brookfield, Hemingray Glass Works was the dominant producer of glass insulators in the 1920s. The CD 162 NO. 36 had to compete directly with Hemingray's immensely popular No. 19 (Lynchburg used cuts of Hemingray insulators in their advertising price lists). Yet both the Gayner and Brookfield molds had slightly different profiles with narrower wire grooves than the Hemingray No. 19. In the case of Gayner molds, the wire groove was very narrow and shallow, which made it more difficult to attach and hold wires.

So, to make the CD 162 more functional to compete with Hemingray's No. 19, Lynchburg reworked both sets of molds to widen and deepen the wire groove. This modification gives the reworked Lynchburg CD 162 a unique profile among CD 162s. The Gayner molds were reworked twice, first to widen the wire groove to about the same size as the Brookfield molds. They were subsequently reworked a second time to further widen the wire groove to the Lynchburg profile. Since the Brookfield molds already had a slightly wider wire groove, most of them were used without modification. However, two Brookfield molds were reworked to the wider wire groove.

As a result of these modifications there are four basic types of Lynchburg CD 162. Since this reworking significantly altered the shape of the insulator, these are listed as separate types rather than as mold variations.

Lynchburg CD 162 Type 1 are from the original Gayner molds, with a shallow (c. 7mm) and narrow (7mm) wire groove. The reverse lettering is a modified Gayner arrangement, usually NO. 36 in large letters on the left with a very small mold number centered below, followed by MADE IN and U.S.A. in two lines on the right. In a reworking of CD 162 III, G3.1, the MADE IN U.S.A. is replaced by only U.S.A. in large letters. On one mold, (CD 162 I, Mold G10) the original Gayner style number NO. 36-190 was retained and MADE IN U.S.A. omitted (these were quickly retooled to conform to "standard" Lynchburg lettering since they are rare). Lynchburg CD 162, Type I

Lynchburg CD 162 Type II are from both Brookfield molds (noted with a B before the mold number, as B1) and Gayner molds (as G1). The original Brookfield molds, have a wider (c. 15mm) wire groove yet still shallow (7mm). The reverse lettering is NO. 36 centered above with a mold number below, and a smaller MADE IN to the left and U.S.A. to the right, usually close to the base. On some pieces there is a line that encircles the top of the dome about 12mm from the top. Often remnants of BROOKFIELD and NEW YORK are visible beneath the Lynchburg lettering.

In addition, there are nine confirmed Type I original Gayner molds that were reworked into Type II and produced before they were again reworked into Type III. It is possible that all 12 Type I molds exist in Type II. They retain the typical Gayner lettering arrangement as in Type I with a widened wire groove. Gayner Type II molds are relatively scarce since they were soon reworked into Type III.

Lynchburg CD 162, Type II
Lynchburg CD 162 Type III are all reworked Gayner molds, with a much widened (c. 18mm) and deepened (10mm) wire groove. While the overall dimensions of the wire groove from the outside of the upper and lower rims are about the same (between 17.5mm and 20mm), the effective width is increased by narrowing the ridges so that they turn sharply into the groove rather than being wide and sloping. The upper wire ridge was reworked just below the mold line (which occurs almost centered in the upper wire ridge) leaving a smooth, rounded top half while the bottom half breaks sharply into the wire groove. The entire groove was made deeper leaving a pronounced edge between the lower portion of the wire groove and the bottom skirt. On many of these the reworked wire groove placed MADE IN so close to the edge of the groove that the pressure of the insulator press quickly wore the mold leaving the upper skirt lettering indistinct on many pieces. Lynchburg CD 162, Type III
Lynchburg CD 162 Type IV are reworked Brookfield molds, with a widened (16mm) and deepened (8mm) wire groove, but still slightly narrower than Type III. Like Type III, the effective width of the wire groove is increased by reworking the top rim just below the mold line so that it turns sharply into the wire groove rather than sloping. This gives a profile very similar to Type III. They can be distinguished by a slightly smaller wire groove, as well as the particular arrangement of lettering used on Brookfield molds and the characteristic line around the dome. These are the only CD 162 molds that have the L logo on top of the crown. At this time, there are only two molds of Type IV confirmed, CD 162 IV, Mold B14 and CD 162 IV, Mold B15, which was retooled at least once. Lynchburg CD 162, Type IV

A few of Type III and Type IV molds were retooled to strengthen the lettering or to thicken the lower part of the skirt, which gave the lower skirt a slight outward flare.

Lynchburg CD 162, Type ILynchburg CD 162, Type IILynchburg CD 162, Type IIILynchburg CD 162, Type IV
Comparison of CD 162 Types: Type I (left), Type II (center left), Type III (center right), Type IV (right)

The Brookfield molds used by Lynchburg were not all of uniform size usually varying in the height of the crown. As a result the overall height of various molds can vary as much as 5mm. Since this is a feature of individual molds typical of Brookfield (much like the CD 112) there is no attempt to classify the Brookfield mold Lynchburg CD 162 by height.

height comparison
Comparison of differing heights of Brookfield molds, CD 162 II, Mold B6 (left) and II, Mold B5 (right)

Lynchburg produced 1,097,532 CD 162. They were made throughout Lynchburg's history, and along with the CD 154 No. 44 were some of the first and last insulators made by Lynchburg. All lettering on the molds is hand engraved, with the exception of a few mold numbers that are die stamped.

Accounting for the number of CD 162 molds used by Lynchburg is complicated by extensive reworking. Some of the mold numbers listed under different types are the same molds reworked. The following list is incomplete and includes only personally confirmed molds (see chart below).

Type I: 11 molds, former Gayner, one reworked (12 possible)
Type II: 20 molds, 10 former Brookfield (12 possible), 10 former Gayner reworked (there are likely 12)
Type III: 10 molds, former Gayner reworked, 6 also retooled (12 possible), one retooled twice
Type IV: 2 molds, former Brookfield reworked, one also retooled

It is possible that the 10 original Brookfield Type II molds plus the two original Brookfield Type IV molds comprise a single 12 mold set for use on the 12-mold Kribs insulators presses. That would suggest that Lynchburg CD 162 Type II, Molds B1 and B2, as well as Mold B13, all of which remain unconfirmed at this point, may not exist.

In the menu below, the molds are listed with the Type number (I, II, III, or IV), with G for Gayner molds or B for Brookfield molds, followed by the mold number. In the individual mold listings, there are notations indicating whether the mold occurs in more than one type. This is one of five styles of Lynchburgs that occur with SB (along with CDs 122 [unconfirmed], 164, 205, and 251 [unconfirmed]). Molds below in parenthesis have been confirmed but lack photos; molds in gray are assumed to exist or reported but have not been confirmed.

Gayner Molds

Type 1

I, Mold G1 I, Mold G2 I, Mold G3 I, Mold G4 I, Mold G5 I, Mold G6 I, Mold G7
I, Mold G8 I, Mold G8.1 I, Mold G9 I, Mold G10 I, Mold 10.1 I, Mold G11 I, Mold G12

Type II

II, Mold G1 II, Mold G2 II, Mold G3 II, Mold G4 II, Mold G5 [II, Mold G6] II, Mold G7
II, Mold G8 II, Mold G9 II, Mold G10 II, Mold G11 II, Mold G12    

Type III

III, Mold G1 III, Mold G1.1 III, Mold G1.2 III, Mold G2 III, Mold G2.1 III, Mold G3 III, Mold G3.1
III, Mold G4 III, Mold G4.1 III, Mold G5 III, Mold G6 III, Mold G6.1 III, Mold G7 III, Mold G7.1
III, Mold G8 III, Mold G9 III, Mold G10 III, Mold G11 III, Mold G12    

Brookfield Molds

Type II

II, Mold B1* II, Mold B2* II, Mold B3 II, Mold B4 II, Mold B5 II, Mold B6 II, Mold B7
II, Mold B8 II, Mold B9 II, Mold B10 II, Mold B11 II, Mold B12 II, Mold B13*

Type IV

IV, Mold B14 IV, Mold B15 IV, Mold B15.1

* Mold II, B1 has been reported but not confirmed; these mold numbers may not exist.

Additional Information

Chart of CD 162 molds

These are confirmed* molds; there may be others that are not yet listed.

Type I

Type II

Type III

Type IV

G-1 G-1 G-1
G-2 G2 G-2
G-3 G-3 G-3
G-4 G-4
G-5 G-5 G-5
G-6 G-6 G-6
G-7 G7 G-7
G-8 G-8 G-8
G-9 G-9 G-9
G-10 G-10 G-10
G-11 G-11

* "confirmed" means either physical inspection or clear photographs; does not include "reports."

Chart of Production Records for CD 162

Dates Number Produced
Nov 1, 1923 to Mar 8, 1924 493,207
Mar 16 to Apr 5, 1924 42,720
Nov 2 to Dec 27, 1924 162,126
Jan 11 to Mar 7, 1925 210,034
Mar 22 to Apr 11, 1925 73,035
May 3 to May 23, 1925 116,410
TOTAL 1,097,532*

* This total may not include light sage green or green-tinted clear pieces (see Birmingham).

Varieties of Lynchburg CD 162