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CD 154

Lynchburg CD 154

NO. 44 New Telegraph Standard Double Petticoat

CD 154, Telegraph

Original Molds: Gayner CD 153, Gayner CD 154, Lynchburg

Number of molds known: 42?

Mold Types: 3

Major Lettering Arrangements: 3

Lettering Variations: 11

Crown Lettering: "L" logo on Gayner molds

Retooled Molds: Yes

Base Types: CDP, RDP, NDP

Number made: 680,938* **

Original Price 1924: $53.00 per 1,000; 5.3 cents each

* The listed total comes from Lynchburg production records, and may not include pieces made in clear and clear-tinted colors (see Birmingham).
** This total does not include production totals for No. 48 (48,775).

Colors: Lt. Blue Aqua, Blue Aqua, Lt. Aqua, Aqua, Green Aqua, Ice Blue, Lt. Cornflower Blue, Blue, Teal Blue, Ice Green, Lt. Green, Sage, Aqua Sage, Green Sage, Blue Sage, Lime Green, Green, Apple Green, Yellow Green, Olive Yellow Green, Olive Green, 7-up Green, Clear w/Smoky Gray tint, Clear w/Green tint, Clear w/Pink tint, Clear w/Sage Green tint, Clear w/Amber tint (Straw), Clear w/Smoky Amber tint, Clear w/Yellow tint, Clear with Olive tint, Off Clear, Ice Blue w/tiny bubbles, Lime Green w/tiny bubbles, Lt. Blue Aqua w/milk swirls, Milky Aqua, Green w/milk swirls, Gray tint w/milk swirls, Ice Green w/Amber swirls


Lynchburg CD 154 was originally made from reused Gayner CD 154 molds and then from molds made by Lynchburg. Some have suggested that the Lynchburg-made molds were actually reworked from Gayner's CD 153. While this is likely, there is no hard evidence of this (see The Elusive No. 48). As the Lynchburg molds showed signs of wear (see Blotches), some were replaced by molds of a slightly different shape. It is uncertain whether these were reworked from other molds or were made new by Lynchburg.

In any case, as a result there are three types of CD 154.

Lynchburg CD 154 crown, Type I Lynchburg CD 154 crown, Types II & III
Type I Types II & III

Type I molds are retooled Gayner CD 154. There were 12 original Gayner molds and all of these exist with Lynchburg retooling. These are fairly easy to identify since they are slightly shorter than the Lynchburg molds with a squatty look. On the Gayner Type I molds (left silhouette) the crown is not quite as tall, is rounded, and slopes more sharply to the wire groove lip. On Lynchburg Types II and III molds (right silhouette), the crown is slightly larger, flatter, and slopes more smoothly to the wire groove lip. Also, on Gayner Type I molds, the lower wire groove lip is larger, giving a sharper angle to the upper skirt.

The front lettering is consistent, with LYNCHBURG in slightly uneven letters. The L logo was usually added to the top of the crown, although on some molds it is on the skirt above LYNCHBURG. On most pieces, circle blotouts that erased GAYNER are visible beneath LYNCHBURG. Normally, the entire Gayner lettering on the reverse was retained, with the mold number below NO. 44 (see photo below; the original Gayner pieces occur both with and without MADE IN U.S.A. on reverse). On at least two molds (CD 154 I, Mold G5; CD 154 I, Mold G9), the small Gayner mold number was later overstruck with a larger die stamped number.

Comparison of reverse lettering of CD 154, Gayner, Mold 5 (left) and Lynchburg, Type I Mold G6 (right).

There exist Type I CD 154s with the normal Gayner lettering on the reverse but without any lettering on the front (called No Names). These pieces may have been made by Gayner. Yet, Gayner, Lynchburg, and No Name CD 154s of the identical color have been found together on the same lines. -1- This suggests that Lynchburg may have made insulators lettered GAYNER before changing the lettering to read LYNCHBURG (see Gayner Insulators at Lynchburg?). However, this awaits further research.

In any case, there is evidence that the No Name CD 154 was a transition piece made at Lynchburg, after blotting out GAYNER but before adding LYNCHBURG. At least one No Name CD 154 exists (Mold G2) with complete reverse Gayner lettering, and with obvious yet unreadable blot outs on the front at precisely the place where GAYNER would have been. This same mold also exists with GAYNER on the front. Since it is highly unlikely that Gayer would have blotted out their own name while still making this style, it is most likely that the No Name CD 154, Mold G2 was made at Lynchburg, after blotting out the GAYNER name but before adding LYNCHBURG. There are several examples of Lynchburg making insulators with Gayner molds before the modification to Lynchburg lettering was complete (for example, CD 162 Type I, Mold G10 and CD 164, Mold 6). This is one of the few pieces that I have seen that provides clear evidence that at least some of the "No Names" of Gayner-Lynchburg styles were actually made at Lynchburg.

Type II is the most commonly found Lynchburg CD 154. These are characterized by a hefty crown and a thick, broad skirt. In profile, they are close to Hemingray's popular CD 154, No. 42, although with a more outwardly sloping skirt. They occur with both large and small lettering, and both with and without the L logo on front. The reverse lettering is fairly consistent with NO. 44 placed on the same level and between MADE IN and U.S.A. The mold number occurs in several different places, although usually either on the reverse above NO. 44 or later on the front to the left of LYNCHBURG. One mold (CD 154 II, L1) occurs with backwards 44 on reverse, although it was quickly corrected.

Type II, early Type II, later

It is probable that Lynchburg reworked Gayner's CD 153 molds into the more popular CD 154 (see The Elusive No. 48). The crown was retained and only slight machining of the skirt would have produced the profile of the CD 154. These would have been Lynchburg's CD 154 Type II, Molds L1 thru L12.

Later versions of Type II, beginning with Mold 15, show a barely perceptible variation in the shape of the skirt (see profiles, right). Earlier versions have a fairly smooth slope from the wire groove to the base. Later variations begin with a sharper outward curve just below the wire groove and then slope more vertically toward the base. While not certain, it seems likely that these later molds were made in the Lynchburg shops rather than modified from pre-existing molds. This variation may have been a response to criticism that the Lynchburg CD 154 No. 44 did not precisely match Hemingray's No. 42 (see below). Some have suggested that this later variation of Type II was actually made by Birmingham Glass Works after buying the Lynchburg molds and equipment in 1928, but there is no evidence for this (see Birmingham Questions). From what little we know of Biringham's short production of insulators, this is unlikely. At present, this variation has not been given a separate designation.

Type III is the least common Lynchburg CD 154, scarce although not rare. It is characterized by the same crown shape as Type II, but differs noticeably in the shape of the skirt. While the skirt is the same diameter as Type II, a thicker lower wire groove lip allows the skirt to slope to the base at a much more vertical angle. This makes it appear that the skirt is narrower, thus the nickname "narrow skirt." While there are only 8 of these molds confirmed, another has been reported (I have not personally confirmed it). There may exist a full set of 12 of this type. Examples of this type often occur with color swirls of green in aqua glass and with tiny seed bubbles, which is a feature of late Lynchburg production.

Some have suggested that Type III was in fact reworked Type II to repair deteriorating molds, a reality evident on some Type II pieces (see Blotches). This is entirely possible, although it would require considerable machining and re-facing the sides of the mold to result in the new shape. However, if the mold surface were deteriorating, and the sides were machined to provide a new smooth surface, that could result in alteration of the skirt profile. Re-facing the old molds would be cheaper than creating new molds. Some pieces of Type III clearly show machining marks on the skirt (see CD 154 III, Mold 9). Yet, this could be from making the mold since other molds show similar tool marks. It is also possible that Type III were made new in the Lynchburg shops to replace worn molds. However, this would be expensive at a time when the company was struggling with costs, so this seems less likely.

Another possibility is that the slightly altered shape of Type III was Lynchburg's response to complaints by some customers that the profile of their No. 44 did not exactly match Hemingray's popular No. 42. The following comment is from Lynchburg's highest volume customer.

It perhaps would be well also to call your attention to the part of the letter written us from Kansas City [Joslyn distribution house], in which they advise your #44 Insulator is not an exact duplicate of the Hemingray #42. I ran into this same criticism at St. Paul in my way home. Kansas City says that it is practically impossible to get the pipe line companies in southern Oklahoma and northern Texas to use anything but the #42, and they insist upon getting Hemingray; but they believe that if we could furnish an insulator really duplicating the Hemingray #42, they could be switched over, which never can be accomplished with your insulator as at present, which does not duplicate. In starting up again, we certainly hope you will make an absolutely exact duplicate in all respects of the Hemingray #42, and we believe it is extremely important that you do this if we are to get the business. [Letter from Marcellus Joslyn of Joslyn Manufacturing and Supply Company to Lynchburg Glass Corporation, July 10, 1925.]

While this particular complaint was registered after the company had ceased production in May, 1925, it indicates the complexity of the business climate and the dominance of Hemingray. Lynchburg had consistently reworked their molds to more closely approximate what Hemingray had established as "standard" profiles for popular insulators, so it would be reasonable to assume that they had already begun responding to this criticism with the No. 44 Type III before the plant shut down (see above, Type II variation). Lynchburg's CD 154 Type III is closer to the skirt profile of Hemingray's No. 42 than their CD 154 Type II, although the lower wire groove lip on the Lynchburg was still larger than Hemingray's (see comparison below).

I am inclined to think that Type III molds are resurfaced Type II molds, either to repair damage or to alter the profile, or both. However, at this point there is no specific evidence to determine the origin of Type III molds or their purpose.

Gayner CD 153 Lynchburg CD 154 Type I Lynchburg CD 154 Type II Lynchburg CD 154 Type III Hemingray CD 154
Gayner CD 153 Type I Type II Type III Hemingray 42

Comparison of the Gayner CD 153 (left), the three types of Lynchburg CD 154, and Hemingray CD 154 No. 42 (right).

As noted above, some have suggested that CD 154 Type II and Type III Lynchburg molds were reworked entirely from Gayner CD 153 molds. The similarity of the skirt profile as well as the nearly identical crown certainly suggest that (see above, left). However, there is no hard evidence to prove it. It does seem probable given Lynchburg's proclivity for recycling obsolete molds.

There is a style No. 48 that appears in Lynchburg production records and advertising. Some have suggested that this is simply another designation for the CD 154 No. 44. However, a careful analysis of the evidence suggests that the No. 48 was a CD 153, produced by Lynchburg without the LYNCHBURG lettering (see The Elusive No. 48).

There also exist unlettered CD 154s in clear tinted colors similar to Lynchburg lettered pieces. They also somewhat resemble the later skirt variation of Type III Lynchburgs. Some conclude that these were produced at Lynchburg. However, except for possible transition pieces at the beginning of production (see Gayner Insulators at Lynchburg? and The Elusive No. 48), Lynchburg consistently put their name on products, even to using the very crude scrawled lettering on early CD 162 (see CD 162 I, G5). It is certainly possible that in the last days of the company when finances were tight they put pieces into production without lettering.

Yet it is more likely that these pieces were made by another company. While very similar to Lynchburg's CD 154 in the later variation, the profile of these pieces is significantly different than any of the three types of Lynchburg CD 154. There are further slight differences in the shape and width of the skirt. It is possible that these were made by Birmingham Glass Works from reworked Lynchburg molds (see Birmingham Questions). Removing the Lynchburg lettering by machining the sides of the skirt could have produced these differences. However, my hunch is that these these were not made by Birmingham, although at this time there is no definitive evidence either way.

CD 154 No NameCD 154 Lynchburg
Comparison of CD 154, No Name (left) and Lynchburg (right)

Lynchburg produced 680,938 CD 154. They were made throughout Lynchburg's history, and along with the CD 162 No. 36 were some of the first and last insulators made by Lynchburg.

There are 44 confirmed molds of CD 154: 12 Type I Gayner molds, 22; Type II Lynchburg molds (24 possible); and 10 Type III Lynchburg molds. Both Gayner and Lynchburg tended to make molds in sets of 12, so it is possible that there were 12 Type II molds made (missing II L13 and II L14; see below). Likewise, if there were 12 Type III molds made, the total number of Lynchburg CD 154 molds was 48. At this time, I know of only six CD 154 molds that were retooled after being put into production: CD 154 Type GI Mold 1, Type I Mold G5 and Type I Mold 9 to add a larger mold number; Type II Mold L1 to correct an engraving error; Type II Mold L2 and Type II Mold L12 to strengthen part of the lettering.

There are examples of CD 154 that do not appear to have a mold number. However, it is likely that the mold number is obscured by the forming process or wear, since they can usually be matched to numbered molds by other characteristics. I do not know of any confirmed unique molds of Lynchburg CD 154 that occur without a mold number.

It is possible that CD 154 Type II Mold 13 and Mold 14 do not exist. I have seen many hundreds of Lynchburg CD 154s over the years and talked to dozens of collectors and have never encountered these two mold numbers. As noted above, CD 154 Type II molds beginning with number 15 have a slightly different skirt shape than the first set of 12 Type II molds. This suggests some break in mold making between mold 12 and mold 15. It is likely that molds 15-24 were made at a later time than the first set of 12 Type II molds (as suggested above, Molds L1-12 were likely made from reworked Gayner CD 153 molds, while molds L15-24 were made in the Lynchburg shops). Therefore it would be understandable if there were a skip in mold numbering. There could be various reasons for this skip ranging from inattention to the numbering sequence to molds damaged while being made. It is also possible that these two molds were not numbered. But this is only speculation without any evidence. The reality is that at this time we do not know. It is possible that these two mold numbers may eventually turn up, since as recently as 2017 previously unknown variations of Lynchburg mold numbers were confirmed.

All lettering on the molds is hand engraved, with the exception of a few mold numbers that are die stamped. These occur on molds made or modified later in Lynchburg's production. While Lynchburg CD 154s have been confirmed with conical (CDP), nipple (NDP), and round (RDP) drip points, none have been confirmed with smooth base (SB).

Numbers in brackets are confirmed but lack photos at this time; numbers in gray have not been reported or confirmed and may or may not exist.

Gayner Molds (all are Type I)

I, Mold G1 I, Mold 1.1 I, Mold G2 I, Mold G3 I, Mold G4 I, Mold G5 I, Mold G5.1 I, Mold G6
I, Mold G7 I, Mold G8 I, Mold G9 I, Mold 9.1 I, Mold G10 I, Mold G11 I, Mold G12

Lynchburg Molds Type II

II, Mold L1 II, Mold L1.1 II, Mold L2 II, Mold L2.1 II, Mold L3 II, Mold L4 II, Mold L5 II, Mold L6
II, Mold L7 II, Mold L8 II, Mold L9 II, Mold L10 II, Mold L11 II, Mold L12 II, Mold 12.1 II, Mold L13*
II, Mold L14* II, Mold L15 II, Mold L16 II, Mold L17 II, Mold L18 II, Mold L19 II, Mold L20** II, Mold L21
II, Mold L22 II, Mold L23 II, Mold L24

* It is possible that these two mold numbers do not exist (see discussion above).
** A scarce mold number; the mold may have been damaged shortly after being put into production.

Lynchburg Molds, Type III

III, Mold 1 III, Mold L2 III, Mold 3 III, Mold 4 III, Mold 5 III, Mold L6 III, Mold L7 III, Mold 8
III, Mold L9 III, Mold L10 [III, Mold 11] III, Mold L12    


Additional Information

Molds of Lynchburg CD 154

Items in (parentheses) are assumed to exist but are not yet confirmed.

Type I
Gayner Mold
Type II
Type III

G1 L1, L1.1 L1
G2 L2. L2.1 L2
G3 L3  
G4 L4 L4
G5, G5.1 L5 L5
G6 L6 L6
G7 L7 L7
G8 L8
G9 L9, L9.1 L9
G10 L10 L10
G11 L11  
G12 L12, L12.1 L12


Chart of Production Records for CD 154

Dates Number Produced
Nov 1, 1923 to Jan 5, 1924 40,537
Jan 20 to Jan 26, 1924 784
Feb 17, to Mar 8, 1924 73,360
Mar 16 to Apr 5, 1924 58,779
Nov 2 to Nov 8, 1924 14,583
Dec 7, 1924 to Jan 17, 1925 110,125
Mar 1 to May 23, 1925 382,770
TOTAL 680,938*

This total may not include clear tinted pieces (see Birmingham).


1. Reported by Dennis Stewart, "Collecting for Fun," in Crown Jewels of the Wire, February 2001, page 25. Available online: Collecting for Fun